NEET 2021, 2022 Syllabus (Updated) - Physics, Chemistry and Biology
The MCI recommended the following syllabus for NEET-UG exam for admission to MBBS/ BDS courses across the country after review of various State syllabi as well as those prepared by CBSE, NCERT and COBSE. Here we are providing you the complete section and topic-wise syllabus of NEET entrance exam. You can click on any link below to see the detailed NEET syllabus of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
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NEET Syllabus Class 11 and 12
|Physical world and measurement
|Laws of Motion
||Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
|Work, Energy and Power
||Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
|Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
|Properties of Bulk Matter
||Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
||Atoms and Nuclei
|Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
|Oscillations and Waves
|Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
|Structure of Atom
|Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
|Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
|States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
||General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
||p- Block Elements
||d and f Block Elements
|s-Block Element (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
||Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
|Some p-Block Elements
||Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
|Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
||Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
||Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
||Chemistry in Everyday Life
|Diversity in Living World
|Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
||Genetics and Evolution
|Cell Structure and Function
||Biology and Human Welfare
||Biotechnology and Its Applications
||Ecology and environment
NEET Physics Syllabus
Class 11 Topics
- UNIT 1: Physical World and Measurement
1.1 Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.
- 1.2 Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time
measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
- 1.3 Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
- UNIT 2: Kinematics
2.1 Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion,
average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for uniformly
accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
- 2.2 Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and
displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real
number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.
- 2.3 Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.
- 2.4 Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion.
Uniform circular motion.
- UNIT 3: Laws of Motion
3.1 Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse;
Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
- 3.2 Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
- 3.3 Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on
- UNIT 4: Work, Energy and Power
4.1 Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
- 4.2 Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and
potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
- UNIT 5: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
5.1 Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body;
centre of mass of uniform rod.
- 5.2 Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
- 5.3 Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions;
moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and
perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
- UNIT 6: Gravitation
6.1 Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude
- 6.2 Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.
- UNIT 7: Properties of Bulk Matter
7.1 Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s
ratio; elastic energy.
- 7.2 Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem
and its applications.
- 7.3 Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles
and capillary rise.
- 7.4 Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat
capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.
- 7.5 Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s
displacement law, and Green House effect.
- 7.6 Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.
- UNIT 8: Thermodynamics
8.1 Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law
of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
- 8.2 Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.
- UNIT 9: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
9.1 Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
- 9.2 Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of
equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.
- UNIT 10: Oscillations and Waves
10.1 Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and
its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies;
simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only),
- 10.2 Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle
of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics.
Beats. Doppler effect.
Class 12 Topics
- UNIT 1: Electrostatics
1.1 Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges;
superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
- 1.2 Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a
dipole in a uniform electric field.
- 1.3 Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged
infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)
- 1.4 Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential
surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.
- 1.5 Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors
and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without
dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.
- UNIT 2: Current Electricity
2.1 Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current;
Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (liner and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and
- 2.2 Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of
- 2.3 Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.
- 2.4 Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
- 2.5 Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of
internal resistance of a cell.
- UNIT 3: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
3.1 Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
- 3.2 Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in
uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
- 3.3 Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductorsdefinition
of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity
and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
- 3.4 Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic
field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole
(bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and
- 3.5 Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.
- 3.6 Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
- UNIT 4: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
4.1 Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.
- 4.2 Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative
treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.
- 4.3 AC generator and transformer.
- UNIT 5: Electromagnetic Waves
5.1 Need for displacement current.
- 5.2 Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
- 5.3 Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts
about their uses.
- UNIT 6: Optics
6.1 Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications optical fibres,
refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of
thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
- 6.2 Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
- 6.3 Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia)
- 6.4 Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
- 6.5 Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.
- 6.6 Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.
- 6.7 Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
- 6.8 Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
- 6.9 Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane
polarized light and Polaroids.
- UNIT 7: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
7.1 Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation- particle nature of light.
- 7.2 Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be
omitted; only conclusion should be explained).
- UNIT 8: Atoms and Nuclei
8.1 Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition
and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
- 8.2 Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding
energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
- UNIT 9: Electronic Devices
9.1 Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics
in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode
as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common
emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
NEET Chemistry Syllabus
Class 11 Topics
- UNIT 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
1.1 General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
- 1.2 Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
- 1.3 Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula;
chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
- UNIT 2: Structure of Atom
2.1 Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship,
Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in
orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and
completely filled orbitals.
- UNIT 3: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
3.1 Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization
enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.
- UNIT 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
4.1 Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond
theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of
some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.
- UNIT 5: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
5.1 Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating
the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical
derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea),
deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
- 5.2 Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
- UNIT 6: Thermodynamics
6.1 First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ∆U and ∆H, Hess’s
law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase
transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
- 6.2 Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and
non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.
- 6.3 Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.
- UNIT 7: Equilibrium
7.1 Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium
constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak
electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of PH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary
idea), buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
- UNIT 8: Redox Reactions
8.1 Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss
and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.
- UNIT 9: Hydrogen
9.1 Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and
chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;
- UNIT 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
10.1 Group I and group 2 elements:
- 10.2 General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal
relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity
with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
- 10.3 Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:
- 10.4 Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and
- 10.5 Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
- UNIT 11: Some p-Block Elements
11.1 General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
- 11.2 Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in
chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids,
boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
- 11.3 General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends
in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of
some important compounds: oxides.
- 11.4 Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.
- UNIT 12: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
12.1 General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of
- 12.2 Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
- 12.3 Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types
of organic reactions.
- UNIT 13: Hydrocarbons
13.1 Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical
mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
- 13.2 Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation:
chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect),
ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
- 13.3 Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic
character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
- 13.4 Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism
of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of
functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
- UNIT 14: Environmental Chemistry
14.1 Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants;
acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to
industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
Class 12 Topics
- UNIT 1: Solid State
1.1 Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline
solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing
in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic
properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
- UNIT 2: Solutions
2.1 Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions,
colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point,
osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.
- UNIT 3: Electrochemistry
3.1 Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with
concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic
cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell,
fuel cells; corrosion.
- UNIT 4: Chemical Kinetics
4.1 Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order
and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first
order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious
- UNIT 5: Surface Chemistry
5.1 Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and
heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and
suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian
movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.
- UNIT 6: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
6.1 Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and
principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
- UNIT 7: p- Block Elements
7.1 Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical
properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic
forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3
) and oxoacids (elementary idea
- 7.2 Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical
properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds
of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture,
properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
- 7.3 Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical
properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds
oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
- 7.4 Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
- UNIT 8: d and f Block Elements
8.1 General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first
row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic
properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
- 8.2 Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
- 8.3 Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
- UNIT 9: Coordination Compounds
9.1 Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC
nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT;
importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).
- UNIT 10: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
10.1 Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical
- 10.2 Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
- 10.3 Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
- UNIT 11: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
11.1 Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of
primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
- 11.2 Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic
substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
- 11.3 Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.
- UNIT 12: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
12.1 Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and
mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
- 12.2 Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
- UNIT 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
13.1 Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification
of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
- 13.2 Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.
- 13.3 Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
- UNIT 14: Biomolecules
14.1 Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides
(sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
- 14.2 Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure,
tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
- 14.3 Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).
- 14.4 Vitamins- Classification and function.
- 14.5 Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
- UNIT 15: Polymers
15.1 Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important
polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
- UNIT 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life
16.1 Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics,
- 16.2 Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
- 16.3 Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
NEET Biology Syllabus
Class 11 Topics
- UNIT 1: Diversity in Living World
1.1 What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and
taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
- 1.2 Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses
- 1.3 Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
(three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to
class, characteristic features and examples).
- 1.4 Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient
features and at least two examples).
- UNIT 2: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
2.1 Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf,
inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
- 2.2 Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and
reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
- UNIT 3: Cell Structure and Function
3.1 Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope,
cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies,
lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and
function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
- 3.2 Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids;
Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
- 3.3 B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
- UNIT 4: Plant Physiology
4.1 Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport;
Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast,
symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation
of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
- 4.2 Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary
idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
- 4.3 Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in
Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and
photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
- 4.4 Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system
(aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
- 4.5 Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth;
Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth
regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism
- UNIT 5: Human Physiology
5.1 Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis,
digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion;
Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
- 5.2 Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its
regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to
respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
- 5.3 Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human
circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of
cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
- 5.4 Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory
system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic
Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis
and artificial kidney.
- 5.5 Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction;
Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal
system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
- 5.6 Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system
and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and
function of eye and ear.
- 5.7 Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal,
Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers
and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter,
exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
(Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)
Class 12 Topics
- UNIT 1: Reproduction
1.1 Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of
reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation;
vegetative propagation in plants.
- 1.2 Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types,
agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development
of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony;
Significance of seed and fruit formation.
- 1.3 Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary;
Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation,
implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
- 1.4 Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need
and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive
technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
- UNIT 2: Genetics and Evolution
2.1 Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple
alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of
inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked
inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans;
Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
- 2.2 Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA
packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon;
Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
- 2.3 Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy,
embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolutionVariation
(Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic
drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
- UNIT 3: Biology and Human Welfare
3.1 Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common
cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol
- 3.2 Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal
- 3.3 Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as
biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
- UNIT 4: Biotechnology and Its Applications
4.1 Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
- 4.2 Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified
organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
- UNIT 5: Ecology and environment
5.1 Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism,
competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
- 5.2 Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient
cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
- 5.3 Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of
Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National
parks and sanctuaries.
- 5.4 Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste
management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any
three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
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